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#1860187
Please, have I got this right?
After delving into the Easy Access Rules for Flight Crew Licencing (Part-FCL), Aug 2020, my reading is that differences training is voluntary.
Yet this conflicts with current received wisdom.

GM1 FCL.700 lists the items; para (d) indicates when differences training iaw FCL.710 is required.

FCL.710(a) gives familiarisation as an alternative to differences training.
- whereas differences training requires ATO or DTO or instructor, followed by log book signature (FCL.710(b)or(c)&(d))
- familiarisation has no such requirement at all.

Just the same for LAPL(A) holders
FCL.135.A(b)

Seems a bit strange.
Thank you.
#1860201
Differences Training
"Differences Training" requires the acquisition of an additional knowledge and training on any appropriate device, or on the aircraft. It requires both ground and flight training and must be endorsed as having been completed by a suitably qualified Flight Instructor or Class Rating Instructor.

Familiarisation Training
Before flying any type or variant of aircraft which you’ve not flown before, within the Single-Engine Piston (SEP) class, you must complete "Familiarisation Training". This is the correct modern terminology for what would previously be described as being "Checked Out" on a new type.

"Familiarisation Training" requires the acquisition of additional knowledge, either through self-study of appropriate material about the aircraft such as the Pilot Operating Handbook, Pilot’s notes, etc, training with a suitably qualified instructor, or, particularly in the case of a single seat aircraft, a verbal brief from a pilot already familiar with the type.

With multi seat aircraft, while it may be helpful to fly with another pilot already familiar with the type, pilots should note that only qualified instructors are authorised to provide training, including familiarisation training and this could lead to difficulties if an accident were to occur that was supervised by any pilot other than a qualified instructor.

In addition, when first transitioning to flying types or variants of aircraft which include various specific more demanding or unusual features, that he or she has not previously experienced as pilot in command, a pilot must also have differences training with a qualified instructor to teach them to safely deal with the feature or features concerned.

Whilst differences training with an instructor is mandatory, we also recommend you include ground and flight training with an instructor as part of your familiarisation training.

This is an extract from the LAA website explaining familiarisation and differences training which myself and Francis wrote some time ago.

Cookie
#1860220
The table in fcl.700 has a (D) against SEP for all the separate items that we associate with differences training- then it says for anything with a (D) against it, read fcl.710 (which covers both differences training and familiarisation, who can do them, etc) as "differences training required".
#1860245
Irv Lee wrote:The table in fcl.700 has a (D) against SEP for all the separate items that we associate with differences training- then it says for anything with a (D) against it, read fcl.710 (which covers both differences training and familiarisation, who can do them, etc) as "differences training required".


Er, that isn't what it says, Lee.

The actual words are:
"(d) Whenever (D) is indicated in one of the lists mentioned in paragraphs (a) to (c), it indicates that differences training in accordance with FCL.710 is required."

(which is why I underlined 'iaw FCL.710' in my original post)
FCL.710 permits familiarisation as an alternative.

*helpful debate*
#1860249
@allout but that is what it says - there's no "alternative", fcl .710 just covers them both, who can do them, etc, and the previous (fcl.700?) says for those items with a (D) against them, read 710 for what differences training is and who can do it, as differenes training is required (as you say), as per the table entries for each item within SEP.
#1860297
I'm just looking at FCL.710, and I'm wondering if I've uncovered a gaping chasm in my knowledge.

When I did those sample air law tests recently, one of the things I was a bit unsure of was all this aircraft type/class/variant stuff.

Is this example correct?

Class: SEP
Type: AA5
Variants: AA5/AA5A/AA5B

And if so, given that

(a) In order to extend his/her privileges to another variant of aircraft within one class or type rating, the pilot shall undertake differences or familiarisation training. In the case of variants within a type rating, the differences or familiarisation training shall include the relevant elements defined in the operational suitability data established in accordance with Part-21.


, where would I find these "operational suitability data".

Presumably this is what defines whether I'd need familiarisation training to fly a Grumman Tiger rather than a Cheetah.

And what would I need to do to fly a C152 instead of an AA5, which is presumably a different type?

Feel free to flame me for not having made it my business to know all this several decades ago, along with any answer... :oops:
#1860304
You need famil training to fly different variants within the SEP class. In effect this means that you should self study the approved flight manual and any other relevant operating data/manuals for the aircraft you are going to fly (eg installed avionics as well) - there is no need for famil training to be signed off or completed by an instructor.
Kemble Pitts liked this
#1860308
MattL wrote:You need famil training to fly different variants within the SEP class. In effect this means that you should self study the approved flight manual and any other relevant operating data/manuals for the aircraft you are going to fly (eg installed avionics as well) - there is no need for famil training to be signed off or completed by an instructor.

Thanks, I'd got that, and it makes sense.

Looking for a definitive statement of the requirements though, and to understand the precise meanings of "class", "type" and "variant".

Do PPL holders flying normal SEPs need "type ratings"?
#1860337
TopCat wrote:Do PPL holders flying normal SEPs need "type ratings"?


"SEP" is a class. Usually one would have a SEP class rating on their PPL, and that allows one to fly any SEP without a further rating. Except to fly IFR, at night, or in the case that one has not done differences (or familiarisation) training for the various things listed in SERA that require differences (or familiarisation) training.

So no, a type rating is not required to fly a SEP - the SEP class rating covers it.
#1860345
rdfb wrote:
TopCat wrote:Do PPL holders flying normal SEPs need "type ratings"?


"SEP" is a class. Usually one would have a SEP class rating on their PPL, and that allows one to fly any SEP without a further rating. Except to fly IFR, at night, or in the case that one has not done differences (or familiarisation) training for the various things listed in SERA that require differences (or familiarisation) training.

So no, a type rating is not required to fly a SEP - the SEP class rating covers it.

Thank you, much as I thought.

Is this all covered in FCL.710, or is there something else I need for a definitive statement?
#1860351
TopCat wrote:Is this all covered in FCL.710, or is there something else I need for a definitive statement?


I'm not sure there's a definitive statement anywhere about this, because it's sort of like proving a negative. I need a licence to fly an aircraft (probably from the Air Navigation Order or similar but that's not in contention). My PPL licence is only a container - it needs ratings. I have a SEP class rating. Therefore I can fly a SEP, except where the rating, or the law, say otherwise (eg. at night, or IFR, or where differences or familiarisation training is required). I can't prove that there isn't a law somewhere that stops me from doing that - that's the negative.
#1860450
MattL wrote:You need famil training to fly different variants within the SEP class. In effect this means that you should self study the approved flight manual and any other relevant operating data/manuals for the aircraft you are going to fly (eg installed avionics as well) - there is no need for famil training to be signed off or completed by an instructor.


I can't help thinking about the ATA "Ferry Pilot's Notes" with each 'type' (including variants) typically being just another flip page-pair away .. This included the Meteor, which ISTR was classed as a 'light twin', and all of the wartime ones of which were single-seaters :) :salut:
#1860453
Thanks all, but I'm still struggling.
That list of items for differences training, and associated '(D)' annotations, is from GM1 FCL.700
ie Guidance.
Not a regulation, not hard law or soft law.
The wording certainly indicates a requirement for differences training, but I guess I'm angling for an actual requirement.
We don't seem to have found it, yet.
#1860478
Think you’re perhaps reading the or in the wrong place

[ Pilots shall complete differences training] or [familiarisation in order to extend their privileges to another variant of aircraft within one class or type rating]