Dave W wrote:@Edward Bellamy, what should happen in a circumstance where (for example) an alleged infringer claims that an ambiguous clearance or statement by an ATS provider was made?
There is no apparent way in CAP1404* of differentiating between an error and a mistake:
- Mistake - Usually accidental. You know it’s wrong.
- Error - Usually made due to the lack of knowledge. So, the action was wrong because it was different from the rules. The lack of knowledge may be due to ignorance, or it may be due to a misunderstanding. If the latter, it's very important to know why the misunderstanding occurred because lessons may need to be learned to avoid others misunderstanding it too.
There are different interpretations of 'error' and 'mistake', and they are often used interchangeably, including an the aviation context. This is a summary of what I have found (included in a paper I produced):
It is first important to understand what we mean by ‘error’ in the context of aviation human factors. With apologies for restating what most people already understand, very simply an error can be considered as:
“a planned sequence of mental or physical activities that fails to achieve its intended outcome”
1. Errors can come in two forms:
‘slip’ – incorrect execution of the plan ie where action is taken but it is not correct usually due to attentional or perceptual failures
‘lapse’ – failure to execute the plan, usually due to memory failure
2. ‘Mistakes’ occur as a result of failure in the planning phase ie where a person intends to carry out an action, does so correctly but the action is inappropriate and the desired goal is not achieved
3. So when a pilot closes the mixture control lever instead of the throttle lever, that is a slip. When they forget to select landing gear down, that is a lapse. Where they wish to fly to airfield A but when planning enter airfield B into Skydemon (other software is available) and then arrive at airfield B, that is a mistake.
There are, as always, alternative interpretations...